Waste management is the human control of collection, treatment and disposal of different wastes. This is in order to reduce the negative impacts, the waste inflict on the environment and society.
Waste is directly linked to the human development, both technologically and socially. Biodegradable waste, such as food waste or sewage etc is broken down naturally by microorganism either by aerobically or anaerobically. If the disposal of biodegradable waste is not controlled, it may cause a number of wider problems including release of green house gases and can impact upon human health via encouragement of pathogens.
As a part of the natural degradation of solid waste, waste water is also generated. In addition to this, waste water is generated from other sources including houses, public and private institutions, Slaughter houses, fish markets, food processing institutions etc.
Problems occurring due to the improper handling of organic waste water
Due to the improper handling of waste water, human beings are under the threat of many diseases. Waste water may cause many types of pollution which may generally be categorized as soil pollution, air pollution and water pollution.
Due to the accumulation of waste water and its natural degradation, different types of poisonous gas are generated and because of this the air we breathe is polluted. Accumulation of waste water provides a shelter for mosquito breeding. It will also cause different types of health problems such as Inflammation of lung system, Irritating effects on mucus membrane, Bronchitis and respiratory problems, breathing difficulty and irritation to respiratory tract.
Another important problem due to the waste water is soil pollution. This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage tanks and leaching of waste from landfills. It will cause serious health disorders such as headache, nausea, fatigue, eye irritation, skin rash etc.
Waste water will also cause our pure water sources contaminated. Waste water is drained away to the sea, rivers, lakes etc. Because of this, many of the plants and animals subsisting in water find their lives miserable and now they are in the list of endangered species.
In order to solve the above mentioned problems, it is necessary to find out new methods for the treatment of the waste water. One of the best methods for the effective treatment of waste water is biomethanization (anaerobic digestion.) It is a technology involving microorganism. Biodegradable organic waste water can be treated for producing Biogas. The main component of which is methane gas, an alternative energy source. The treated liquid can be utilized as liquid organic manure.
The treated waste water (slurry) can be used effectively in any type of soil and for any crop. It is good manure because it contains high NPK content.
Collection of gas generated
During the anaerobic treatment of waste or the biomethanization process, biogas is generated. This gas is stored in specially designed gas collectors such as gas balloons, gas holders etc. This gas is mainly used for cooking purposes.
Designing of a plant
The plant has been designed based on certain criteria. The first and the foremost thing is that, more attention has to be given to the organic matter in the waste water that to be treated. The second criteria is importance to the land condition where the plant proposed to install. There are many designs available but lagoon type digesters are more suited for waste water treatment because they are more cost effective and simple in operation.
The treated water that gets after treatment is up to the standard for agricultural applications. It can be used as a liquid fertilizer.
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