The different kinds of bio waste including human excreta causing serious threat to human health and cleanliness of the surroundings can be converted to bioenergy and bio manure by treating with the application of biogas technology. This write up is intended to throw some light for imparting preliminary information about the working of the eco - friendly toilets developed by BIOTECH.
In view of the ever increasing population and the scarcity of housing facilities, people particularly those belonging to the below poverty line are compelled to dwell in small cottages or huts built near the costal areas of the sea, or on the banks of rivers or by the sides of lakes. In these situations necessary modern facilities required for maintaining cleanliness are far beyond their reach. These people are even unable to construct good toilets for attending to the calls of nature. The main reasons attributable for this state of affairs are scarcity of suitable land, financial difficulties and above all the ignorance of the people as well. As a result of all these, a situation has emerged by which, people have to go searching for open spaces for finding a convenient place for passing urine and for related primary needs. It is also noticed that in certain places people are building toilets by erecting logs of woods over the water in the rivers and back waters. Even in the city areas in some places it is seen that people are connecting the pipes coming out of their toilets directly to the waste water drains and canals for flushing out the waste water and human excreta. All these tendencies will lead to the problem of serious contamination of water and pollution of the atmosphere. In high water level areas in the cities, it will not be possible to construct septic tanks. If, however, septic tanks are built in such places, the cost may be very high.
According to the study reports published in recent times, it is seen that the drinking water sources as well as the underground water springs are being considerably contaminated. If the contamination of drinking water is continued as at present, the non availability of pure water may become a global phenomenon in the near future. The poisonous gases produced by the human excreta which are flushed out indiscriminately may linger in the atmosphere, and this may lead to such of the havocs as global warming, climate change etc.
Even though many scientific methods have been developed for the treatment of human excreta, it has not so far become possible to take the full benefit to the people or to make the people fully conscious of all the advantages of the process. If the people are to show any interest in the scientific technology, they should be made to understand that the inherent benefits derived from the process will accrue to the people themselves. Further the common people should be enabled to take up such projects without incurring any additional financial burden for them or they should be provided with adequate financial support by different agencies to embark upon such schemes.
Selection of the Size of the Plant
It is sufficient to have a treatment plant of 2 Cum size, for treating human waste and bio waste generated in a household having a family comprising up to a total of five members. The most important point to be taken note of while operating a plant is, to regulate the quantity of waste to be fed into the plant, strictly in accordance with the optimum treatment capacity per day. If, however, the plant is overfed by the deposit of more quantity of waste, the working efficiency of the plant will gradually become deteriorated. In such situations the gas produced from such plants may not be ignited, and in some cases stink odour may also come out from the plant in a large measure. But if the plant is fed with the bio waste in accordance with its treatment capacity, the plant will work very efficiently for a pretty long period. Even if the quantity of waste fed into the plant is a little less than the prescribed limit, or the plant is not fed at all for a few days the working of the plant will not be affected. But the quantity of bio gas produced will be found to be a little reduced in proportion to the quantity of waste fed into the plant. Apart from households, the public institutions like hostels, convents, hospitals etc where people are coming in for short stays, the toilets can be attached with large sized plants for treating the human wastes for the production of energy. The size of such plants is determined in accordance with the total number of inmates of those institutions. If the plants of the required size are not selected correctly, the working of the plant may be in trouble.
Operation of the Plant After the plant has been installed, anaerobic bacteria is allowed to grow and multiply with in the plant. After a period of two or three days the plant will be in working condition and the production of biogas will commence in full scale. A pipe from the toilet can be attached to the plant. The required facility for this will be provided in the plant. The food waste generated from the household and the waste water can be treated in the plant. Separate inlets for depositing these wastes are available in the plant. The bio waste and the human excreta that reach inside the plant will be decomposed by the work of the bacteria and transformed into biogas and bio manure. The biogas produced is collected in the gas chamber of the plant. This gas can be taken as fuel for cooking purposes by connecting the gas to the stove in the kitchen using separate pipe line. The stoves required for the purpose will be made available along with the plant. The biogas obtained from the waste treatment plants installed in the houses having a total number up to five family members, will be sufficient for meeting 70% to 90% of energy required for cooking purposes. In the meantime if the toilet is also attached to the plant more than 90% to 100% of the fuel requirement of the family can be met from the biogas produced in the plant.
By constructing eco friendly toilet, although numerous benefits can be derived, the main achievement is the financial gain of this project. By utilizing the biogas produced by the waste treatment plant attached to the toilet, the entire expenditure incurred for the installation of the plant is seen received back within a period of nearly one and a half years. This is a very useful project, according to which, even if the expenditure incurred for the construction of the toilet is also taken into account the whole amount spent for the purpose can be fully retrieved within a limited period of nearly two years. Apart from this, the amount to be invested for the construction of the septic tank can also be saved, and this is yet another financial benefit. In brief, it can be realized that this is a programme by which substantial amount of avoidable expenditure can be saved.
Possibilities for the Future
By the implementation of the scheme through which a lasting solution is sought against the increasing fuel crisis, frightening environmental pollution, and alarming hygienic problems, we are launching the commencement of a new era of silent revolution in areas of waste treatment, pollution free atmosphere and cleaner environment.
For those persons who are looking for private spaces for attending to their calls of nature can maintain healthy and cleaner habits to become partners for the prevention of contamination of the earth and the atmosphere. By making use of the biogas produced of their own, the people can reduce the use of other fuels considerably. Through the establishment of eco friendly toilets and installation of biogas plants, the enormous cost of fuel worth crores of rupees can be gained by our people particularly our country. For this, we seek the unstinted co-operation and whole hearted support of one and all.
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